Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Wikipedia

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - Wikipedia.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (ultraviolet C or UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions. UVGI is used in a variety of applications, such as food, air, and water purification..


Ultraviolet - Wikipedia.

Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10 nm (with a corresponding frequency around 30 PHz) to 400 nm (750 THz), shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays.UV radiation is present in sunlight, and constitutes about 10% of the total electromagnetic radiation output from the Sun.It is also produced by electric arcs and ....


Storm drain - Wikipedia.

A storm drain, storm sewer (United Kingdom, U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is infrastructure designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs. Storm drains vary in design from small residential ....


Wastewater quality indicators - Wikipedia.

Wastewater quality indicators are laboratory test methodologies to assess suitability of wastewater for disposal, treatment or reuse. The main parameters in sewage that are measured to assess the sewage strength or quality as well as treatment options include: solids, indicators of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, indicators of fecal contamination. ....


Humidifier - Wikipedia.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) Some humidifiers have an integrated ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) feature. Vaporization. Steam humidifiers, or warm mist humidifiers, are equipped with a heating element that vaporizes the water, releasing moisture in the form of steam into the air. A medicated inhalant can also be added to ....


Sunlight - Wikipedia.

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is scattered and filtered through Earth's atmosphere, and is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon.When direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light ....


Ultraviolet — Wikipédia.

Le rayonnement ultraviolet (UV), egalement appele << lumiere noire >> parce que generalement invisible a l'oeil nu, est un rayonnement electromagnetique de longueur d'onde inferieure a celle de la lumiere visible, mais superieure a celle des rayons X.Les rayons UV ne peuvent etre observes qu'indirectement, soit par la fluorescence, soit a l'aide de detecteurs specialises..


Surface runoff - Wikipedia.

Surface runoff is defined as precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, or hail) that reaches a surface stream without ever passing below the soil surface. It is distinct from direct runoff, which is runoff that reaches surface streams immediately after rainfall or melting snowfall and excludes runoff generated by the melting of snowpack or glaciers.. Snow and glacier melt occur only in areas ....


Sewage - Wikipedia.

Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced by a community of people. It is typically transported through a sewer system.: 175 Sewage consists of wastewater discharged from residences and from commercial, institutional and public facilities that exist in the locality.: 10 Sub-types of sewage are greywater ....


Apple cider - Wikipedia.

The U.S. regulations were finalized in 2001, with the FDA issuing a rule requiring that juice producers and most large cider producers follow Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) controls, using either heat pasteurization, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), or other proven methods to achieve a 5-log reduction in pathogens..


Brine - Wikipedia.

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (NaCl) in water (H 2 O). In diverse contexts, brine may refer to the salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, on the lower end of that of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature).Brine forms naturally due to evaporation of ground saline ....


Total dissolved solids - Wikipedia.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the dissolved combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a liquid in molecular, ionized, or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form.TDS concentrations are often reported in parts per million (ppm). Water TDS concentrations can be determined using a digital meter..


Activated sludge - Wikipedia.

The activated sludge process is a type of biological wastewater treatment process for treating sewage or industrial wastewaters using aeration and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.It uses air (or oxygen) and microorganisms to biologically oxidize organic pollutants, producing a waste sludge (or floc) containing the oxidized material.The general arrangement of ....


Water cooling - Wikipedia.

Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. Evaporative cooling using water is often more efficient than air cooling.Water is inexpensive and non-toxic; however, it can contain impurities and cause corrosion. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and power stations.Water coolers ....


Cleaning - Wikipedia.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, which destroys microorganisms; used extensively in the medical and food industries; Cleaning by item. Some items and materials require specialized cleaning techniques, due to their shape, size, location, or the material properties of the object and contaminants. Buildings and infrastructure. Beach cleaning.


Wastewater - Wikipedia.

Actinides; Bioremediation; Depleted uranium; Nuclear fission; Nuclear fallout; Plutonium; Poisoning; Radioactivity; Uranium; Electromagnetic radiation and health.


Water chlorination - Wikipedia.

History. In a paper published in 1894, it was formally proposed to add chlorine to water to render it "germ-free". Two other authorities endorsed this proposal and published it in many other papers in 1895. Early attempts at implementing water chlorination at a water treatment plant were made in 1893 in Hamburg, Germany.In 1897 the town of Maidstone, England was the first to have its ....


Toilet - Wikipedia.

A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl (pan) connected on the "up" side to a cistern (tank) that enables rapid filling with water, and on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent. When a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant.However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not ....


Cooling tower - Wikipedia.

A cooling tower is a device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a coolant stream, usually a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to ....


Sedimentation (water treatment) - Wikipedia.

Basics. Suspended solids (or SS), is the mass of dry solids retained by a filter of a given porosity related to the volume of the water sample. This includes particles 10 um and greater. Colloids are particles of a size between 1 nm (0.001 um) and 1 um depending on the method of quantification. Because of Brownian motion and electrostatic forces balancing the gravity, they are not likely ....


Sequencing batch reactor - Wikipedia.

Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) or sequential batch reactors are a type of activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater.SBR reactors treat wastewater such as sewage or output from anaerobic digesters or mechanical biological treatment facilities in batches. Oxygen is bubbled through the mixture of wastewater and activated sludge to reduce the organic matter ....


Anaerobic digestion - Wikipedia.

Anaerobic digestion is a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. The process is used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste or to produce fuels. Much of the fermentation used industrially to produce food and drink products, as well as home fermentation, uses anaerobic digestion..


(PDF) Solar Energy: Principles and Possibilities - ResearchGate.

Mar 01, 2010 . http: yy upload.wikimedia.org y wikipedia y commons y 4 y 4c y Solar_Spectrum.png include the use of photovoltaic panels, or solar thermal collectors, which use either electrical or mechanical ....